"Elizabeth I, whose reign endured from 1558 to 1603, was nevertheless an ambiguous figure in the matter of the black presence in England. She and her father, Henry VIII, had brought Blacks into court for entertainment and service, and as a supporter of the English slave trade, she was more directly responsible for the too numerous Blacks ‘firmly ensconced in Britain’s houses, streets and ports and portrayed on its stages’ during her reign, as Gretchen Gerzina sardonically puts it. Further evidence of her ambivalence towards the Black presence in her realm is provided by Peter Fryer, who instances a painted panel, Queen Elizabeth and Her Court at Kenilworth Castle, by Marcus Gheeraerts in 1575, where the queen ‘was shown with a group of [seven] black musicians and [three] dancers.’ And we have seen that the queen and her father were not particularly unusual in such matters, since it was during the reign of her half brother, Edward VI, that the actual ruler, Edward Seymour (Duke of Somerset), awarded a knighthood and a pension to Peter Negro. Before a third of the sixteenth century had passed, Henry VIII had severed ties with the Catholic Church and by an act of Parliament was made pope, or supreme head, of the Church of England. By midcentury, English pirates and merchants had made the first tentative incursions into the slave trade dominated until then by European merchants and bankers, particularly the Italians, Spanish, and Portuguese. That trade and slave production would eventually provide the plantation economy for English colonialism in North America and the West Indies and the margin of surplus for the transition from an agrarian-based mercantilism to capitalist production in England itself."
Cedric J. Robinson, Forgeries of Memory and Meaning: Blacks and the Regimes of Race in American Theater and Film before World War II (via goneril-and-regan)
"You see, imperialism is wrong. But imperialism is a bad student. When it’s been defeated, when it’s been sent out of the classroom, it goes back in again. It’s a bad student. It never learns the lessons of its failures, it never draws the lessons from its failures. It’s over there in South Africa cutting African throats, just because those Africans are thinking about freedom, as you are today. Imperialism is over there in the Middle East crushing the Arab peoples. That’s Zionism."
".چو استاده ای٬ دست افتاده گیر
As long as you are standing, give a hand to those who have fallen."